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Cemre Avşar
Suna Ertunç


This study discusses fluoride removal efficiency from phosphogypsum (PG) on a lab-scale experiment matrix designed by the Box-Behnken method. Temperature, solid/liquid ratio, and time were supposed to influence fluoride removal efficiency from PG by various salt solution media. Experiment matrices were designed according to salt solution types: seawater, 5% NaCl, and 10% NaCl solutions.  The factor-response analysis showed a direct proportionality between fluoride removal efficiency and temperature. The optimum fluoride removal conditions based on the experimental data obtained by the multi-variable design matrix were determined by the Design Expert v.12 software. The optimum temperature, time, and solid/liquid ratio were 80 °C, 3 h, and 0,174 for seawater. The software predicted a 73,31% fluoride removal efficiency at the optimum conditions, whereas the experimental value was 74,99%. Since the actual vs. predicted data show high consistency, results might also be useful when industrial-scale fluoride removal to a predetermined level is required prior to a particular use of PG. PG has a high potential as an alternative raw material, and fluoride removal might be important in recycling applications. This study provides a novel pre-industrial scale fluoride removal inventory, especially for the fertilizer and cement industry.

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Avşar, C., & Ertunç, S. . (2023). FLUORIDE REMOVAL FROM PHOSPHOGYPSUM: A STUDY ON A PRE-INDUSTRIAL SCALE AND ITS MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS: Original scientific paper. Chemical Industry & Chemical Engineering Quarterly, 30(1), 35–46. https://doi.org/10.2298/CICEQ230203009A


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