Effects of temperature on physicochemical properties of the lecithin-based deep eutectic solvents and their use in the CaO-catalyzed transesterification Original scientific paper

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Zoran Todorović
Biljana Đordević
Dragan Troter
Ljiljana Veselinović
Miodrag Zdujić
Vlada Veljković


Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are called 'designer solvents' due to various structural variations and the benefit of tailoring their physicochemical properties. For industrial applications of DESs it is crucial to know their physical and thermodynamic properties such as density, viscosity, and refractive index. These properties were measured for three lecithin (LEC)-based DESs with glycerol (G), triethanolamine (TEOA), and oleic acid (OLA) as functions of temperature. The viscosity was fitted by both Arrhenius-type and Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equations. The density, viscosity, and refractive index of tested DESs decreased with the increase in temperature. The LEC:G DES exhibited the lowest density at all tested temperatures. This DES was selected as a cosolvent in the ethanolysis of cold-pressed black mustard (Brassica nigra L.) seed oil catalyzed by either calcined or non-calcined CaO. The reaction was carried out in a batch stirred reactor under the following conditions: the temperature of 70 °C, the ethanol-to-oil molar ratio of 12:1, and the amount of DES and CaO of 20 and 10 wt.% (to oil), respectively. The presence of DES accelerated the reaction, while the separation of the final reaction mixture phases was faster.


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Todorović, Z., Đordević, B. ., Troter, D. ., Veselinović, L. ., Zdujić, M., & Veljković, V. (2023). Effects of temperature on physicochemical properties of the lecithin-based deep eutectic solvents and their use in the CaO-catalyzed transesterification: Original scientific paper. HEMIJSKA INDUSTRIJA (Chemical Industry), 77(1), 53–67. https://doi.org/10.2298/HEMIND220527016T
Advances in Biodiesel Production Research

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