TWO-PHASE LEACHING FOR METAL RECOVERY FROM WASTE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS: STATISTICAL OPTIMIZATION Scientific paper
Main Article Content
The rapid growth of technology is inevitable in humankind’s life and has a significant stint in electronic waste (e-waste) generation. Electronic waste possesses tremendous environmental and health effects, and one such major contributor to it is printed circuit boards (PCBs). The present work deals with the recovery of heavy metals from PCBs by using aqua regia as a leaching reagent in two stages (first stage HCl and HNO3 and second stage HCl and H2SO4). The response surface methodology was used to determine the optimal recovery conditions for the heavy metal ions: the recovery time of 5 h, the pulp density of 25 g/L, and the temperature of 90.1 °C with desirability 0.761. These optimized values provide a maximum recovery rate of Cu (97.06%), Sn (94.66%), Zn (96.64%), and Pb (96.89%), respectively. EDXs are used to analyze the metal concentrations of the sample before and after treatment.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors grant to the Publisher the following rights to the manuscript, including any supplemental material, and any parts, extracts or elements thereof:
- the right to reproduce and distribute the Manuscript in printed form, including print-on-demand;
- the right to produce prepublications, reprints, and special editions of the Manuscript;
- the right to translate the Manuscript into other languages;
- the right to reproduce the Manuscript using photomechanical or similar means including, but not limited to photocopy, and the right to distribute these reproductions;
- the right to reproduce and distribute the Manuscript electronically or optically on any and all data carriers or storage media – especially in machine readable/digitalized form on data carriers such as hard drive, CD-Rom, DVD, Blu-ray Disc (BD), Mini-Disk, data tape – and the right to reproduce and distribute the Article via these data carriers;
- the right to store the Manuscript in databases, including online databases, and the right of transmission of the Manuscript in all technical systems and modes;
- the right to make the Manuscript available to the public or to closed user groups on individual demand, for use on monitors or other readers (including e-books), and in printable form for the user, either via the internet, other online services, or via internal or external networks.
H. Yang, J. Liu, J. Yang, J. Hazard. Mater. 187 (2011) 393–400.
L. Wei, Y. Liu, Procedia Environ. Sci. 16 (2012) 506–514.
M.F. Bari, N. Begum, S.B. Jamaludin, S.B. Hamaludin, Proc. Malays. Metall. Conf., Univ. Malays. Perlis, Malaysia (2009) p. 1-4.
L. Flandinet, F. Tedjar, V. Ghetta, J. Fouletier, J. Hazard. Mater. 1 (2012) 485-490.
L.A. Castro, A.H. Martins, Braz. J. Chem. Eng. 26 (2009) 649–657.
S. Gupta, G. Modi, R. Saini, Int. Ref. J. Eng. Sci. 3 (2014) 05-17.
D. Jian-Jun, W.E.N. Xue-Feng, Z. Yue-Min, Int. J. Min. Sci. Technol.18 (2008) 454–458.
C. Frazzoli, O. Ebere, R. Dragone, A. Mantovani, Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. 30 (2010) 388–399.
J. Zhang, Y. Jiang, J. Zhou, B. Wu, Y. Liang, Z. Peng, D. Fang, B. Liu, H. Huang, C. Wang, F. Lu, Environ. Sci. Technol. 44 (2010) 3956–3962.
X. Xu, H. Yang, A. Chen, Y. Zhou, K. Wu, J. Liu, Y. Zhang, X. Huo, Reprod. Toxicol. 33 (2012) 94–98.
X. Huo, L. Peng, X. Xu, L. Zheng, B. Qiu, Z. Qi, B. Zhang, D. Han, Z. Piao, Environ. Heal. Perspect. 115 (2007) 1113–1117.
M.A. Barakat, Hydrometallurgy 49 (1998) 63–73.
Y. Guo, X. Huo, Y. Li, K. Wu, J. Liu, J. Huang, G. Zheng, Q. Xiao, H. Yang, Y. Wang, A. Chen, X. Xu, Sci. Total Environ. 408 (2010) 3113–3117.
K. Huang, J. Guo, Z. Xu, J. Hazard. Mater. 164 (2009) 399–408.
Y. Li, X. Huo, J. Liu, L. Peng, W. Li, X. Xu, Environ. Monit. Assess. 177 (2011) 343–351.
V. Grudić, I. Bošković, A. Gezović, Chem. Biochem. Eng. Q. 32 (2018) 299–305.
M. Chen, J. Huang, O.A. Ogunseitan, N. Zhu, Y. Wang, J. Waste Manage. 41 (2015) 142-147.
I. Masavetas, A. Moutsatsou, E. Nikolaou, S. Spanou, A. Zoikis-Karathanasis, E.A. Pavlatou, Glob. NEST J. 11(2009) 241-247.
H. Li, J. Eksteen, E. Oraby, Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 139 (2018) 122–139.
R. Montero, A. Guevara, E. De La Torre, Int. J. Earth Sci. Eng. 2 (2012) 590-595.
J. Ficeriova, P. Baláž, E. Gock, Acta Montan. Slovaca. 16 (2011) 128-131.
R. Vijayaram, K. Chandramohan Res. J. Eng. Sci. 4 (2013) 2–4.
R. Vijayaram , D. Nesakumar, K. Chandramohan, Res. J. Eng. Sci. 2 (2013) 11-14.
M.P Murugesan, K. Kannan, J. Ceram. Process. Res. 21 (2020) 75 – 85.
M.P Murugesan, K. Kannan, T. Selvaganapathy, Mater. Today Proc. 26 (2020) 2720 - 2728l.
E. Kantarelis, W. Yang, W. Blasiak, C. Forsgren, A. Zabaniotou, Appl. Energy 88 (2011) 922–929.
A. Tripathi, M. Kumar, D.C. Sau, A. Agrawal, S. Chakravarty, Int. J. Metall. Eng. 1 (2012) 17–21.
E.Y. Yazici, H. Deveci, Hydrometallurgy. 139 (2013) 30– 38.
G. Zheng, X. Xu, B. Li, K. Wu, T.A. Yekeen, X. Huo, J. Exposure Sci. Environ. Epidemiol. 23 (2012) 67–72.
C. Li, F. Xie, Y. Ma, T. Cai, H. Li, Z. Huang, G. Yuan, J. Hazard. Mater. 178 (2010) 823–833.
P. Sivakumar, D. Prabhakaran, M. Thirumarimurugan, Bioinorg. Chem. Appl.1 (2018) 1-10.
Z. Ping, F. Zeyun, L. Jie, L. Qiang, Q. Guangren, Z. Ming,
J. Hazard. Mater. 166 (2009) 746–750.
M. Kumar, J.C. Lee, M.S. Kim, J. Jeong, K. Yoo, Environ. Eng. Manag. J. 13 (2014) 2601-2607.
C. Wang, F. Lu, Environ. Sci. Technol. 44 (2010) 3956–3962.
Q. Wang, B. Gao, L. Chen, J. Environ. Sci. Health, Part A: Environ. Sci. Eng. 1 (2011) 37–41.
P. Zhu, Y. Chen, L.Y. Wang, M. Zhou, Waste Manage. 32 (2012) 1914–1918.