Main Article Content
In this paper, the ICP-OES method (induced coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) was used to determine the content of silicon dioxide in bauxite, as an important impurity that affects the quality and application of bauxite in alumina production by the Bayer process. Twenty bauxite samples from seven different deposits were analysed. The results were compared with the reference spectrophotometric UV-VIS method. For both methods, bauxite samples for analysis were prepared by melting with a mixture of sodium carbonate: sodium tetraborate 3:1. The molten mass was then dissolved in 1:3 hydrochloric acid. The calibration curve was prepared from a single element silicon ICP standard solution, concentration 1000 mg dm-3 of Si. The mean relative difference between the silicon dioxide content determined by the ICP-OES method and the reference method is found to be 4.88%. Statistical tests were used to assess the comparability of two methods, followed by a scatter plot, the Bland Altman, Passing-Bablok, and the Mountain plot. Graphical comparisons generally do not show statistically significant differences between methods. The accuracy and precision of the ICP-OES method were verified using the standard reference material SRM NIST 697, Dominican Bauxite. Recovery and repeatability values, expressed as RSD, are within the acceptance criteria. Based on the t-test, there is a statistically significant difference between the mean value of ICP-OES measurements and the certified value of silicon dioxide, which can be attributed to the effect of systematic error of ICP-OES analysis.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors grant to the Publisher the following rights to the manuscript, including any supplemental material, and any parts, extracts or elements thereof:
- the right to reproduce and distribute the Manuscript in printed form, including print-on-demand;
- the right to produce prepublications, reprints, and special editions of the Manuscript;
- the right to translate the Manuscript into other languages;
- the right to reproduce the Manuscript using photomechanical or similar means including, but not limited to photocopy, and the right to distribute these reproductions;
- the right to reproduce and distribute the Manuscript electronically or optically on any and all data carriers or storage media – especially in machine readable/digitalized form on data carriers such as hard drive, CD-Rom, DVD, Blu-ray Disc (BD), Mini-Disk, data tape – and the right to reproduce and distribute the Article via these data carriers;
- the right to store the Manuscript in databases, including online databases, and the right of transmission of the Manuscript in all technical systems and modes;
- the right to make the Manuscript available to the public or to closed user groups on individual demand, for use on monitors or other readers (including e-books), and in printable form for the user, either via the internet, other online services, or via internal or external networks.
McGuiness L, Nunes MD, Kroes F, Chai I. Automated analysis of bauxite exploration drill hole samples by diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Alumina Quality Workshop. Australia, 2005; 187–192.
Authier-Martin M, Forte G, Ostap S, See J. The mineralogy of bauxite for producing smelter-grade alumina. JOM 2001; 53(12) :36–40. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11837-001-0011-1
Nechitailov A P, Suss AG, Zhilina TI, Belanova E A. New method of analyzing bauxites to determine their main components and impurities. Metallurgist 2008; 52(11): 625–632. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11015-009-9104-9
Blagojevic D, Lazic D, Keselj D, Skundrić B, Dugic P, Ostojic G. Determining the content of silicon dioxide in bauxites using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng 2019; 38(4). https://doi.org/10.30492/IJCCE.2019.34231
Ostojic G, Lazic D, Zeljkovic S. Determination of the iron oxide content in bauxite: comparing ICP-OES with UV-VIS and volumetric analysis. Chem. Pap. 2020; 75(1): 389-396. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11696-020-01305-z
Idris N, Lahna K, Syamsuddin F, Ramli M. Study on Emission Spectral Lines of Iron, Fe in LaserInduced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) on Soil Samples. J. Phys. Conf. Ser 2017; 846(012020). https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/846/1/012020
Carvalho AAC, Alves VC, Silvestre DM, Leme FO, Oliveira PV, Nomura CS. Comparison of FusedGlass Beads and Pressed Powder Pellets for the Quantitative Measurement of Al, Fe, Si and Ti in Bauxite by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry (LIBS). Geostand. Geoanal. Res. 2017; 41(4): 585–592. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/ggr.12173
Fahad M, Sajjad A, Shah KH, Shahzad A, Abrar M. Quantitative elemental analysis of high silica bauxite using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Opt. 2019; 58(27): 7588-7596. /https://doi.org/htps://doi.org/10.1364/AQ.58.007588
Upendra S, Mishra RS. Simultaneous multielemental analysis of alumina process samples using inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP-AES). Anal. Chem.: Indian J. 2012; 11(1). https://www.tsijournals.com/articles/simultanious-multielemental-analysis-of-alumina-process-samples-using-inductively-coupled-plasma-spectrometry.pdf
Murray RW, Miller DJ, Krys KA. Analysis of major and trace elements in rocks, sediments, and interstitial waters by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). ODP Tech. Note, 2000; 29. https://doi.org/10.2973/ODP.TN.29.2000
SPECTRO - Smart Analyzer Vision Software, Online-Help vers. 5.01.09XX. Spectro Analytical Instruments GmbH. 2012
Giavarina D. Understanding Bland Altman analysis. Biochem. Medica 2015; 25(2), 141–151. https://doi.org/10.11613/BM.2015.015
Bilić-Zulle L. Comparison of methods: Passing and Bablok regression. Biochem. Medica 2011; 21 (1): 49–52. https://doi.org/10.11613/bm.2011.010
Medcalc manual, https://www.medcalc.org/manual/mountain-plot.php, Accessed May 23rd 2020
Linsinger T. Comparison of a measurement result with the certified value. Application Note 1, European Reference Materials. 2010; 1–2.
Certificate of Analysis, Standard Reference Material 697, bauxite Dominican, National Institute of Standards and Technology. 1991
Liberatore PA. Determination of Majors in Geological Samples by ICP-OES: Vol. ICP-AES Inst. 1993; 12 https://www.colby.edu/chemistry/CH332/laboratory/Geo-ICP-protocol2.pdf
Hauptkorn S, Pavel J, Seltner H. Determination of silicon in biological samples by ICP-OES after non-oxidative decomposition under alkaline conditions. Fresenius. J. Anal. Chem 2001; 370: 246–250. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002160100759
US. EPA Method 6010D (SW-846): Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Washington, DC, USA, 2014. https://www.epa.gov/esam/epa-method-6010d-sw-846-inductively-coupled-plasma-atomic-emission-spectrometry
Simundic AM. Statistical analysis in method comparison studies-Part one. 2016; www.acutecaretesting.org
AOAC (American Association Of Official Analytical Chemists), Appendix F : Guidelines for Standard Method Performance Requirements. 2016. https://www.aoac.org/resources/guidelines-for-standard-method-performance-requirements/
Taftazani A, Roto R, Ananda NR, Murniasih S. Comparison of NAA XRF and ICP-OES Methods on Analysis of Heavy Metals in Coals and Combustion Residues. Indones. J. Chem. 2017; 17(2): 228–237. https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.17686
Rüdel H, Kӧsters J, Schӧrmann J. Determination of the Elemental Content of Environment Sample using ICP-OES, Guidelines for Chemical Analysis, Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Schmallenberg, 2007. https://www.ime.fraunhofer.de/content/dam/ime/en/documents/AE/SOP_ICP-OES_en.pdf
Amorin A, Determination of major and minor elements in HF-digested soil samples using an Agilent 5110 ICP-OES, application note, Agilent Technologies.Inc. 2019. https://www.agilent.com/cs/library/applications/application_inert_sample_chamber_icp-oes_5110_5994-1213en_us_agilent.pdf
Krishna AK, Murthy NN, Govil PK. Multielement Analysis of Soils by Wavelength-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. At. Spectrosc 2007; 28(6): 202–214. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Keshav-Krishna/publication/233786687_Multielement_Analysis_of_Soils_by_Wavelength-Dispersive_X-ray_Fluorescence_Spectrometry/links/57ecd91a08aebb1961ffc510/Multielement-Analysis-of-Soils-by-Wavelength-Dispersive-X-ray-Fluorescence-Spectrometry.pdf