Removal of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid from water by using an ultrahighly efficient thermochemically activated carbon

Danijela V. Bojić, Miloš Miroslav Kostić, Miljana D. Radović Vučić, Nena D. Velinov, Slobodan M. Najdanović, Milica M. Petrović, Aleksandar Lj. Bojić


Lagenaria vulgaris activated carbon (LVAC) was synthesized from Lagenaria vulgaris biomass by treatment with diluted H2SO4 followed by thermo-chemical carbonization and overheated steam activation process and used for removal of the herbicide 2,4-di­chlo­rophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that 2,4-D is adsorbed in micropores of the very porous LVAC (665 m2 g-1). LVAC showed high sorption capacity as compared to many previously used sorbents at optimal conditions: the stirring rate of 300 rpm, the sorbent dose of 1.0 g dm-3 and pH from 2 to 7. The experimental maximum sorption capacity of LVAC was 333.3 mg g-1. The pseudo-second-order model and Chrastil model described the 2,4-D sorption kinetics by LVAC. Thermodynamic studies have indicated that the sorption process was endothermic, spontaneous and physical in nature. LVAC was shown to be an ultrahighly efficient sorbent for removal of 2,4-D from groundwater, which could be also recycled and reused.


Activated carbon; 2,4-D; groundwater; recycling and reusing; thermodynamics


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