Implementation of natural and artificial materials in Portland cement - Review

Main Article Content

Damir Barbir
Pero Dabić


For the preparation of modern cement and concrete, supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) have become essential ingredients. The technical, economic and environmental advantages of using SCM have become unquestionable. The main technical reasons for their use are the improvement of the workability of fresh concrete and durability of hardened concrete. Actually, SCM affect almost all concrete properties, while environmental and economic reasons may be more significant than technical reasons. These ingredients can reduce the amount of Portland cement used in cement composites, resulting in economic and environmental benefits. In addition, many of the SCM are industrial by-products, which can otherwise be considered as waste. This paper presents a literature review of the present knowledge on the impact of natural zeolite, waste construction brick and waste container glass on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of Portland cement as the most commonly used cement in the world.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Barbir, D., & Dabić, P. (2020). Implementation of natural and artificial materials in Portland cement - Review. HEMIJSKA INDUSTRIJA (Chemical Industry), 74(3), 147–161.
Engineering of Materials - Composites


Mahasenan N, Smith S, Humphreys K. The cement industry and global climate change: Current and potential future cement industry CO2 emissions. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, Oxford, England, 2003, pp. 995–1000.

The Freedonia Group. World Cement: Industry Study with Forecasts for 2015&2020. Accessed October 01, 2019.

Global Cement staff. Accessed October 01, 2019.

Andrew RM. Global CO2 emissions from cement production. Earth Syst Sci Data. 2018; 10: 195–217.

Worrell E, Price L, Martin N, Hendriks C, Ozawa-Meida L. Carbon Dioxide Emission from the Global Cement Industry. Annu Rev Energ Environ. 2001; 26(1): 303-329.

OECD/IEA and World Business Council for Sustainable Development. October 3, 2019.

Suhendro B. Toward Green Concrete for Better Sustainable Environment. Procedia Eng. 2014; 95: 305-320.

de Queiroz Lamas W, Fortes Palaua JC, de Camargo JR. Waste materials co-processing in cement industry: Ecological efficiency of waste reuse. Renew Sust EnergRev. 2013; 19: 200-207.

Ban BC, Song JY, Lim JY, Wang SK, An KG, Kim DS. Studies on the reuse of waste printed circuit board as an additive for cement mortar. J Environ Sci Health a Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2005; 40(3): 645-656.

Baidya R, Ghosh SK, Parlikar UV. Co-processing of industrial waste in cement kiln–A robust system for material and energy recovery. Procedia Environ Sci. 2016; 31: 309-317.

Lisica A, Dabić P, Barbir D. Mechanical properties of cement composites with addition of waste zeolite from water treatment process. In Proceedings of 5th International Conference-Mechanical Technologies and Structural Materials, Split, Croatia, 2015, pp. 107-112.

Miqueleiz L, Ramirez F, Seco A, Kinuthia JM, Oreja I, Urmeneta P. Alumina filler waste as clay replacement material for unfired brick production. Engin Geo. 2013; 163: 68-74.

Barbir D, Dabić P, Krolo P. Evaluation of leaching behavior and immobilization of zinc in cement-based solidified products. Hem Ind. 2012; 66(5): 781-786.

Asavapisit S, Nanthamontry W, Polprasert C. Influence of condensed silica fume on the properties of cement-based solidified wastes. Cem Concr Res. 2001; 31: 1147–1152.

Wang XY, Lee HS, Park KB, Kim JJ, Golden JS. A multi-phase kinetic model to simulate hydration of slag–cement blends. Cem Concr Comp. 2010; 32: 468–477.

Jain N, Garg M. Effect of Cr(VI) on the hydration behavior of marble dust blended cement: Solidification, leachability and XRD analyses. Constr Build Mater. 2008; 22: 1851–1856.

Laforest G, Duchesne J. Immobilization of chromium (VI) evaluated by binding isotherms for ground granulated blast furnace slag and ordinary Portland cement. Cem Concr Res. 2005; 35: 2322–2332.

Lampris C, Stegemann JA, Pellizon-Birelli M, Fowler GD, Cheeseman CR. Metal leaching from monolithic stabilised/solidified air pollution control residues. J Hazard Mater. 2011; 185: 1115–1123.

Mohamed AMO, Paleologos EK. Fundamentals of geoenvironmental engineering. 1st ed., Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann; 2017.

Barbir D, Dabić P, Lisica A. Assessment of the leachability and mechanical stability of mud from a zinc-plating plant and waste zeolite binding with portland cement. Int J Res Eng Techol. 2014; 3: 37-42.

Barbir D, Dabić P, Krolo P. Hydration Study of Ordinary Portland Cement in the Presence of Lead(II) Oxide. Chem Biochem Eng Q. 2013; 27: 95-99.

Barbir D. Dabić P, Krolo P. Stabilization of chromium salt in ordinary portland cement. Sadhana-Acad P Eng S. 2012; 37: 731-737.

Malinauskaite J, Jouhara H, Czajczynska D, Stanchev P, Katsou E, Rostkowski P, Thorne RJ, Colon J, Ponsa S, Al-Mansour F, Anguilano L, Krzyzynska R, Lopez IC, Vlasopoulos A, Spencer N. Municipal solid waste management and waste-to-energy in the context of a circular economy and energy recycling in Europe. Energy. 2017; 141: 2013-2044.

Sakai E, Miyahara S, Ohsawa S, Lee SH, Daimon M. Hydration of fly ash cement. Cem Concr Res. 2005; 35(6): 1135-1140.

Ganesh Babu K, Siva Nageswara Rao G. Efficiency of fly ash in concrete. Cem Concr Comp. 1993; 15(4): 223-229.

Siddique R, Kaur D. Properties of concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) at elevated temperatures. J Adv Res. 2012; 3(1): 45-51.

Vaclavik V, Dirner V, Dvorsky T, Daxner J. The use of blast furnace slag. Metalurgija. 2012; 51(4): 461-464.

Khan MI, Siddique R. Utilization of silica fume in concrete: Review of durability properties. Resour Conserv. Recycl. 2011; 57: 30-35.

Zareei SA, Ameri F, Dorostkar F, Ahmadi M. Rice husk ash as a partial replacement of cement in high strength concrete containing micro silica: Evaluating durability and mechanical properties. Case Stud Constr Mater. 2017; 7: 73-81.

Safiuddin M, Salam MA, Jumaat MZ. Utilization of palm oil fuel ash in concrete: a review. J Civ Eng Manag. 2011; 17(2): 234-247.

Pontes J, Santos Silva A, Faria P. Evaluation of pozzolanic reactivity of artificial pozzolans. Mater Sci Forum. 2013; 730: 433-438.

Donatello S, Tyrer M, Cheeseman CR. Comparison of test methods to assess pozzolanic activity. Cem Concr Comp. 2010; 32: 121–127.

Sounthararajan VM, Srinivasan K. Sivakumar A. Micro filler effects of silica-fume on the setting and hardened properties of concrete. Res J Appl Sci Eng Tech. 2013; 6(14): 2649-2654.

Khan MNN, Jamil M, Karim MR, Zain MFM, Kaish ABMA. Filler effect of pozzolanic materials on the strength and microstructure development of mortar. KSCE J Civ Eng. 2017; 21(1): 274-284.

Tokyay M. Cement and concrete mineral admixtures. Boca Raton, CRC Press; 2016.

Ramezanianpour AA. Cement replacement materials. Heilderberg,Springer; 2014.

Mertens G, Snellings R, Van Balen K, Bicer-Simsir B, Verlooy P, Elsen J. Pozzolanic reactions of common natural zeolites with lime and parameters affecting their reactivity. Cem Concr Res. 2009; 39: 233–240.

Küçükyıldırım E, Uzal B. Characteristics of calcined natural zeolites for use in high-performance pozzolan blended cements. Constr Build Mater. 2014; 73: 229–234.

Zelić J. Praktikum iz procesa anorganske industrije. Split, Kemijsko-tehnološki fakultet; 2013. (in Croatian)

Standard HRN EN 197-1 2011 Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements, 2011.

Ciullo PA. Industrial minerals and their use; A handbook and formulary. New Yersey, Noyes Publications; 1996.

Hunce SY, Akgul D, Demir G, Mertoglu B. Solidification/stabilization of landfill leachate concentrate using different aggregate materials. Waste Manage. 2012; 32(7): 1394-1400.

Krolo P, Krstulović R, Dabić P, and Bubić A. Hydration and leaching of the cement-zeolite composite. Ceram-Silik. 2005; 49: 213-219.

Gervais C, Ouki SK. Performance study of cementitous systems containing zeolite and silica fume: effects of four metal nitrates on the setting time, strength and leaching characteristics. J Hazard Mater. 2002; B93: 187-200.

Ok YS, Yang JE, Zhang YS, Kim SJ, Chung DY. Heavy metal adsorption by a formulated zeolite-portland cement mixture. J Hazard Mater. 2007; 147: 91-96.

Farkaš A, Rožić M, Košutić K, Pisarović A. Obrada procjednih voda s odlagališta otpada Jakuševac, Zagreb, aktivnim ugljenom i prirodnim zeolitom klinoptilolitom s područja Krapine. Kem ind. 2005; 54: 461-468. (in Croatian)

Cabrera C, Gabaldon C, Marzal P. Technical note: Sorption characteristics of heavy metal ions by a natural zeolite. J Chem Technol Biotechnol. 2005; 80: 477-481.

Barbir D, Dabić P, Lisica A. Effects of mud from a zinc-plating plant and zeolite saturated with zinc on portland cement hydration and properties of hardened cement pastes. Chem Biochem Eng Q. 2016; 30(4): 401-409.

Rožić M, Cerjan-Stefanović Š, Kurajica S, Rožmarić Maěefatik M, Margeta K, Farkaš A. Decationization and dealumination of clinoptilolite tuff and ammonium exchange on acid-modified tuff. J Colloid Interace Sci. 2005; 284(1): 48-56.

Ahmadi B, Sherkarchi M. Use of natural zeolite as a supplementary cementitious material. Cem Concr Comp. 2010; 32: 134–141.

Poon CS, Lam L, Kou SC, Lin ZS. A study on the hydration rate of natural zeolite blended cement pastes. Constr Build Mater. 1999; 13: 427–432.

Feng N, Peng G. Applications of natural zeolite to construction and building materials in China. Constr Build Mater. 2005; 19(8): 579-584.

Markiv T, Sobol K, Franus M, Franus W. Mechanical and durability properties of concretes incorporating natural zeolite. Arch Civ Mech Eng. 2016; 16: 554-562.

Sabet FA, Libre NA, Shekarchi M. Mechanical and durability properties of self consolidating high performance concrete incorporating natural zeolite, silica fume and fly ash. Constr Build Mater. 2013; 44: 175-184.

Chan SYN, Ji X. Comparative study of the initial surface absorption and chloride diffusion of high performance zeolite, silica fume and PFA concretes. Cem Concr Comp. 1999; 21: 293-300.

Hewlett PC. Lea's Chemistry of Cement and Concrete. 4th ed., London, Elsevier; 1998.

Drzaj B, Hocevar S, Slokan M. Kinetic and mechanism of reaction in the zeolitic tuff–CaO–H2O systems at increased temperatures. Cem Concr Res. 1978; 8: 711–720.

Sersale R. Zeolite tuff as a pozzolanic addition in the manufacture of blended cements. In: Natural Zeolites '93: Occurrence, Properties and Use. New York, USA, 1995, pp. 603-612.

Caputo D, Liguori B, Colella C. Some advances in understanding the pozzolanic activity of zeolites: the effect of zeolite structure. Cem Concr Comp. 2008; 30: 455–462.

Đureković A. Cement, cementni kompozit i dodaci za beton. Zagreb, Institut građevinarstva Hrvatske i školska knjiga; 1996. (in Croatian)

Scrivener KL, Juilland P, Monteiro PJM. Advances in understanding hydration of Portland cement. Cem Concr Res. 2015; 78A: 38-56.

Costoya M. Kinetics and microstructural investigation on the hydration of tricalcium silicate. Doctoral Thesis. Switzerland, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne; 2008.

Barbir D. Studija utjecaja štetnih otpada na procese hidratacije i fizikalno-kemijska te mehanička svojstva cementnih kompozita. Doctoral Thesis. Split, Kemijsko-tehnološki fakultet; 2013.

Gartner EM, Young JF, Damidot DA, Jawed I. Hydration of portland cement. In: Bensted J, Barnes P eds. Structure and Performance of Cements. New York, Spon Press; 2002.

Thomas JJ, Allen AJ, Jennings HM. Hydration kinetics and microstructure development of normal and CaCl2 -accelerated tricalcium silicate (C3S) pastes. J Phys Chem. 2009; C113: 19836-19844.

Richardson IG. Tobermorite/jennite- and tobermorite/calcium hydroxide-based models for the structure of C–S–H: applicability to hardened pastes of tricalcium silicate, ȕ-dicalcium silicate, Portland cement, and blends of Portland cement with blast-furnace slag,metakaolin, or silica fume. Cem Concr Res. 2004; 34: 1733-1777.

Tydlitát V, Zákoutský J, Černý R. Early-stage hydration heat development in blended cements containing natural zeolite studied by isothermal calorimetry. Thermochim Acta. 2014; 582: 53–58.

Ahmadi B, Shekarchi M. Use of natural zeolite as supplementary cementitious material. Cem Concr Comp. 2010; 32: 134-141.

Barbir D, Dabić P, Tunjić Lj. Application of Frattini test and saturated lime test to assess pozzolanic activity of different aluminosilicate materials. In: Proceedings of 20th International Conference on Materials MATRIB 2019, Vela Luka, Croatia, 2019,pp. 32-41.

Najimi M, Sobhani J, Ahmadi B, Shekarchi M. An experimental study on durability properties of concrete containing zeolite as a highly reactive natural pozzolan. Constr Build Mater. 2012; 35: 1023-1033.

Shon CS, and Kim YS. Evaluation of West Texas natural zeolite as an alternative of ASTM Class F fly ash. Constr Build Mater. 2013; 47: 389-396.

Canpolat F, Yılmaz K, Köse MM, Sümer M, Yurdusev MA. Use of zeolite, coal bottom ash and fly ash as replacement materials in cement production. Cem Concr Res. 2004; 34: 731-735.

Correia MN, Gomez MC, Duque J. Optimization of construction and demolition waste management: Application to the Lisbon metropolitan area. In: Barbosa Povoa APFD, de Miranda JL. eds. Operations Research and Big Data. Cham, Springer; 2015: 33-40.

Ioannou I, Ilia A, Philokyprou M. Use of crushed fired clay ceramics in the production of mortars. In: Brebbia CA, Neophytov M, Beriatos E, Ioannou I, Kungolos AG. eds. Sustainable development and planing IV, Southampton, WIT Press; 2009: 257-264.

European Commission. Supporting Environmentally Sound Decisions for Construction and Demolition (C&D) Waste Management, A practical guide to Life Cycle Thinking (LCT) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Luxemburg, Institute for Environment and Sustainability; 2011.

Kesegić I, Netinger I, Bjegović D. Recyled clay brick as an aggregate for concrete: Overview. Tech Vjesn. 2008; 15(3): 35-40.

Barbir D, Dabić P, Lisica A, Barbir D. Recycling and reuse of waste building brick in cement composites. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Materials MATRIB 2014, Vela Luka, Croatia, 2014, pp. 30-39.

Pinheiro IS, Montenegro LC, Gumieri AG. Pozzolanic activity of red recycled bricks. In: Proceedings of Second International Conference of Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies, Ancona, Italy, 2010, pp. 299-308.

Baronio G, Binda L. Study of the pozzolanicity of some bricks and clays. Constr Build Mater. 1997; 11(1): 41-46.

He C, Osbeack B, Macovicky E. Pozzolanic reactions of six principle clay minerals: Activation, reactivity measures, and technological effects. Cem Concr Res. 1995; 25(8): 1691-1702.

Hewlett PC. Lea's Chemistry of Cement and Concrete. 4th ed. London, Elsevier Science and Technology Books; 2004.

Alhozaimy A, Fares G, Alawad OA, Al-Negheimish A. Heat of hydration of concrete containing powdered scoria rock as a natural pozzolanic material. Constr Build Mater. 2015; 81: 113–119.

Debieb F, Kenai S. The use of coarse and crushed bricks as aggregate in concrete. Constr Build Mater. 2008; 22: 886-893.

Richard P, Cheyrezy MH. Reactive powder concretes with high ductility and 200-800 MPa compressive strength. Cem Concr Comp. 1994; 144: 507-518.

Dubey A, Banthia N. Influence of high-reactivity metakaolin and silicafume on the flexural toughness of high-performance steelfiber-reinforced concrete. ACI Mater J. 1998; 95(3): 284-292.

Edrogdu S, Kurbetci S. Optimum heat treatment cycle for cement of different type and composition. Cem Concr Res. 1998; 28(11): 1595-1604.

Khalaf FM, DeVenny AS. Recycling of demolished masonry rubble as coarse aggregate in concrete: Review. J Mater Civ Eng. 2004; 16: 331-340.

Khalaf FM. Using crushed clay brick as aggregate in concrete. J Mater Civ Eng. 2006; 18: 518-526.

Rashed AM. Recycled waste glass as fine aggregate replacement in cementitious materials based on Portland cement. Constr Build Mater. 2014; 72: 340–357.

Sadiqul Islam GM, Rahman MH and Kazi N. Waste glass powder as partial replacement of cement for sustainable concrete practice. Inter J Sustain Built Environ. 2017; 6: 37–44.

Testa M, Malandrino O, Sessa MR, Supino S, Sica D. Long-term sustainability from the perspective of cullet recycling in the container glass industry: Evidence from Italy. Sustainability. 2017; 9: 1752-1770.

Shayan A, Xu A. Value-added utilisation of waste glass in concrete. Cem Concr Res. 2004; 34: 81–89.

Reindl J. Report by recycling manager. Madison, USA, 1998.

Ryou J, Shah SP, Konsta-Gdoutos MS. Recycling of cement industry wastes by grinding process. Adv Appl Ceram. 2006; 105: 274–279.

Binici H, Aksogan O, Cagatay IH, Tokyay M, Emsen E. The effect of particle size distribution on the properties of blended cements incorporating GGBFS and natural pozzolan (NP). Powder Technol. 2007; 177: 140–147.

Nassar RUD, Soroushian P. Strength and durability of recycled aggregate concrete containing milled glass as partial replacement for cement. Constr Build Mater. 2012; 29: 368–377.

Sobolev K. Recycling of waste glass in eco-cement., Am Ceram Soc Bull. 2003; 18: 9501-9507.

Samtur HR. Glass recycling and reuse. Madison, Madison Institute for Environmental Studies, Report No. 17, 1974.

Pattengil M, Shutt TC. Use of Ground Glass as a Pozzolan. In: Albuquerque Symposium on Utilization of Waste Glass in Secondary Products, 1997, pp. 137–153.

Phillips JC, Cahn DS. Refuse glass aggregate in Portland cement. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Mineral Waste Utilisation Symposium, Chicago, USA, 1972, pp. 385-390.

Imbabi MS, Carrigan C, McKenna S. Trends and developments in green cement and concrete technology. Int J Sustain Built Environ. 2012; 1: 194-216.

Rashad MA. A brief on high-volume class F fly ash as cement replacement – a guide for civil engineer. Int J Sustain Built Environ. 2015; 4: 278-306.

Shi C, Wu Y, Riefler C, Wang H. Characteristics and pozzolanic reactivity of glass powders. Cem Concr Res. 2005; 35(5): 987-993.

Shayan A, Xu A. Performance of glass powder as a pozzolanic material in concrete: a field trial on concrete slabs. Cem Concr Res. 2006; 36: 457–468.

Karamberi A, Moutsatsou A. Participation of coloured glass cullet in cementitious materials. Cem Concr Comp. 2005; 27: 319–327.

Khmiri A, Samet B, Chaabouni M. Assessment of the waste glass powder pozzolanic activity by different methods. Int J Recent Res Appl Stud. 2012; 10(2): 322-328.

Wang XY, Lee HS, Park KB, Kim JJ, Golden JS. A multi-phase kinetic model to simulate hydration of slag–cement blends. Cem Concr Comp. 2010; 32(6): 468–477.

Yan PY, Zheng F. Kinetics model for the hydration mechanism of cementitious materials. J Chinese Ceram Soc. 2006; 34(5): 555–559.

Fernandez-Jimenez A, Puertas F, Arteaga A. Determination of kinetic equations of alkaline activation of blast furnace slag by means of calorimetric dana. J Therm Anal Calor. 1998; 52(3): 945–955.

Dyer TD, Dhir RK. Chemical reactions of glass cullet used as cement component. J Mater Civ Engin. 2001; 13(6): 414–417.

Jain JA, Neithalath N. Chloride transport in fly ash and glass powder modified concretes—influence of test methods on microstructure. Cem Concr Comp. 2010; 32(2): 148–156.

Patagundi BR, Jadhav RT. Effect of freezing and thawing on the properties of SFRC containing waste glass powder as pozzolana. Inter Arch App Sci Technol. 2012; 3(1): 33–39.

Patagundi BR, Prakash KB. Effect of temperature on the properties of concrete containing glass powder as pozzolana. Inter Arch App Sci Technol. 2012; 1(8): 1-4.

Multon S, Barin X, Godart B, Toutlemende F. Estimation of the residual expansion of concrete affected by alkali silica reaction. J Mater Civ Eng. 2008; 20(1): 54-62.

Newes R, Zsuzsanna J. Strength of lightweight glass aggregate concrete. J Mater Civ Eng. 2006; 18(5): 710-714.

Xie Z, Xiang W, Xi Y. ASR potentials of glass aggregate in water glass activeted fly ash and portland cement mortar. J Mater Civ Eng. 2003; 15(1): 67-74.

Polley C, Gramer SM, Gruz RV. Potential for using waste glass in portland cement concrete. J Mater Civ Eng. 1998; 10(4): 210-219.

Johnson CD. Waste glass as coarse aggregate for concrete. J Test Eval. 1974; 2(5): 344-350.

Oliveira R, de Brito J, Veiga R. Incorporation of fine aggregates in renderings. Constr Build Mater. 2013; 44: 329-341.

Serpa D, Santos Silva A, de Brito J, Pontes J, Soares D. ASR of mortars containing glass. Constr Build Mater. 2013; 47: 489–495.

Byars EA, Morales B, Zhu HY. Waste glass as concrete aggregate and pozzolana-laboratory and industrial projects. Concrete. 2004; 38: 41-44.

Chen CH, Wu JK, Yang CC. Waste E-glass particles used in cementitious mixtures. Cem Concr Res. 2006; 36: 449–456.

Shao Y, Lefort T, Moras S, Rodriguez D. Studies on concrete containing ground waste glass. Cem Concr Res. 2000; 30(1): 91-100.

Shi C, Wu Y, Riefler C, Wang H. Characteristics and pozzolanic reactivity of glass powders. Cem Concr Res. 2005; 35(5): 987-993.

Khmiri A, Chaabouni M, Samet B. Chemical behavior of ground waste glass when used as partial cement replacement in mortars. Constr Build Mater. 2013; 44: 74-80.

Shayan A, Xu A. Value-added utilization of waste glass in concrete. Cem Concr Res. 2004; 34(1): 81-89.